Thursday, August 22, 2019
Effect of video games on Kids Essay Growing up, playing outside was what I did for fun. Whether it was riding my bike, playing with friends, or swimming, I was outside for hours at a time every day. Today, kids have access to things like Xboxes, Playstations, and Nintendo DS. In a study conducted by Gentile, Lynch, Linder Walsh (2004) adolescent girls played video games for an average of 5 hours a week, whereas boys averaged 13 hours a week. A survey done by Harris Interactive shows that 23 percent of youth have felt Ã¢â¬Å"addicted to video games. Ã¢â¬ Studies have shown that teenagers who play violent video games for extended periods of time tend to be more aggressive, are more prone to engage in fights and confrontations, and see a decline in academic success. (Gentile et al) In 2010, Robert Weis and Brittany Cerankosky conducted a study to see how video games affect academic success. They selected a group of boys who didnÃ¢â¬â¢t own video games and assigned them to one of two conditions: the Ã¢â¬Å"video games nowÃ¢â¬ group got a game system immediately, and the Ã¢â¬Å"video games laterÃ¢â¬ group didnÃ¢â¬â¢t receive their systems until months later. The researchers tracked the boysÃ¢â¬â¢ academic success at school. They found that the boys who got their game systems immediately spent less time on schoolwork and, 4 months later, they got lower reading and writing scores. This makes sense, since more time spent playing video games means less time studying. Also, the distraction of video games can cause kids to lose interest in their studies and cause them to fall behind. These results line up with another survey done by Cummings and Vandewater in 2007, which concluded that kids aged 10-19 who played video games spent 30% less time reading and 34% less time doing homework. (Cummings Vandewater) A 2009 Brigham Young University study found that as video game usage increased, the quality of relationships with others, including family, friends, and other peers, decreased. The BYU Study found that daily video game users were twice as likely to use drugs. They were three times as likely to use drugs over those who never played games. This doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that all kids who play video games are going to go out and do drugs, but it certainly doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t help anything. If a child spends hours at a time playing video games, they will have no time to form relationships and socialize, not giving them the social skills they may need to succeed in the future. This can set them up for failure in job interviews, school, and in building solid relationships that are crucial to every teenagerÃ¢â¬â¢s life. However, there are also many positive elements of video games. According to Chacha Tumbokon, a psychologist at De La Salle University, video games can give kids betters skills in areas such as following directions, problem solving and logic, and hand-eye coordination and fine motor skills. Often times the player is asked to follow commands or prompts in a video game in order to gain rewards or status, which aids with following directions. Also, when there is a challenge in a game, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t get solved easily; the player is often forced to work through many riddles or obstacles in order to succeedÃ¢â¬âanother important life lesson for a child to learn. And lastly, video games require a great deal of hand-eye coordination. Often times games require the player to change viewpoints with one control, move with another control, and do actions (shooting, jumping, etc. ) with another control. This builds up hand-eye coordination and fine motor skills, which is a good workout for the brain. Another common aspect of games is resource management. There are often a limited number of resources (such as lives, power-ups, money, etc. ) that has to be managed in order to succeed in a game. This is another valuable lesson that many kids should learn in their lifetime. James Paul Gee, professor of education at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, says that playing a video game is similar to working through a science problem. There is a lot of trial and error involved, which teaches a child inductive reasoning and hypothesis testing, something that can be used in many areas of life. In conclusion, there are many positive and negative effects of video games. Psychologists suggest that parents monitor the games that are being played by their children and make sure the games arenÃ¢â¬â¢t affecting the childÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Friendship or interpersonal relationship Essay The elderly in this study regarded friendship/interpersonal relationship differently and this difference was reflected in the data analysis. As suggested by the findings, many of them seemed not to be interested in getting closer or establishing friendship with others even with the co-residents of the home. Probably the theoretical reason behind this apparent Ã¢â¬ËdetachmentÃ¢â¬â¢ could be found in the disengagement theory on aging. It postulates that as people age, they progressively withdraw from social, physical, and emotional interaction with the world. The long standing friendships from the past and the current friendship among the elderly in the home for the aged contributed much to the well-being/happiness of a little more than half of the total participants, the elderly. Friends appear to be most significant to older adults as a source of enjoyment, socializing, and talking about Ã¢â¬Å"good old timesÃ¢â¬ which results in satisfaction with life (Campbell, 1976). The findings expounded that only half of the participants had this influence of friendship on their life whereas the other half did not. The following assertion of Pinquart, Sorensen (2000) would explain this situation: As friends are typically members of the same age group and often share personal characteristics, cohort experiences, life styles; higher similarity in values and experiences may promote a higher satisfaction with friendships and thus a larger influence of friendship on SWB in old age. Authority and Caregivers. The third meaningful relationship among the institutionalized elderly which gave satisfying results in their life was their relationhip with the people in responsibility or in other words the significant people in their present stage and situation of life. According to Carstensen et al. (1996, in Pinquart, Sorensen, 2000) close and long-term contacts are important and give individuals a sense of stability in their past and anticipated future, especially among elderly persons. The findings in the study showed there was a general consensus that the elderly maintained a positive relationship with the authority. It gave them a sense of importance, feeling of security and it affirmed their sense of worth. This friendly relationship seemed to be positively affecting the subjective experience of wellbeing of the institutionalized aged because as several studies have shown most elderly individuals expect emotional support from their children/family members (Ignersoll-Dayton Antonicci, 1988), and this Ã¢â¬Å"invisible providersÃ¢â¬ are being substituted by the authority and the caregivers in the institutional set up. Besides, positive relationships are helpful in dealing with stressors, which in turn enhance SWB (Sorensen Pinquart, 2000). Studies have also established that people supported by close relationships with family, friends, or other support groups are less vulnerable to ill health and premature death (Doress-Worters Siegel, 1994). Social Interest/Altruism The results reflected that social interest had considerable impact on the sense of wellbeing experienced by the elderly though not many in the home for the aged. The elderlyÃ¢â¬â¢ interest in reaching out/altruism is supported by findings in the study done by Ryff (1989) on middle aged and older men and women. His study had proven that altruism is highly correlated to sense of well-being as it gave a sense of meaning and fulfillment in the lives of the respondents. According to Thomas Chambers (1989) empathy and altruism are manifestations of social interest and the greatest regret associated with decline of physical ability among the aged is the decreasing ability to engage in Ã¢â¬Å"social work. Ã¢â¬ The findings showed what Victor Frankl said to be true: a sense of life meaning ensues when we learn to transcend ourselves, when we have forgotten ourselves and become absorbed in someone or something outside of us (As cited in West, 2000). The findings also brought to light a reality that in general many of the elderly of the study were found to be more Ã¢â¬Å"self-orientedÃ¢â¬ than Ã¢â¬Å"other-orientedÃ¢â¬ and did not want to engage in any social activities notwithstanding the fact that many of them do reach out to others in their own limited capacity. This observation could be tied up with the disengagement theory that as people age they progressively withdraw from social, physical, and emotional interaction with the world. As they gradually disengage themselves, the society too withdraws from its engagement with the aging person. Interestingly, a few of the elderly felt that they have already done enough and it was their time for rest and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be socially involved in any way. This behavioral pattern found in the nature of the elderly could one way be justified the light of the observation made by Warr, Miles Platts, (2001). Older people were found to be, for instance, more conscientious, traditional and careful in interaction with others, and less sociable, outgoing, change oriented and career oriented. Given this milieu, the question arises, as other studies have already indicated if social interest or altruism is one of the contributing factors toward experiencing a subjective sense of well-being among the elderly, how this finding could be explained in the context of the elderly of this study. It is also questionable whether the reason for this withdrawal is due to their status transition, the experience of Ã¢â¬ËdethronementÃ¢â¬â¢: and the message conveyed to them that they are no longer useful or wanted by the family and the society. Butler et al. (1998) observed that ordinarily, elderly people regard institutionalization as a last resort as they perceive it is a kind of Ã¢â¬Ëabandonment. Ã¢â¬â¢ This can result in a loss of self-esteem (Suh Suh, 1999) of the once independent, proud, revered persons when they are dispelled into an insignificant existence in a home which is not their home. This is yet to be explored whether the disengagement of theory on aging happen to be a self-fulfilling prophecy in the lives of the elderly.
Inter Professional Education Reflective Account Nursing Essay Throughout my time on the Year 1 Inter Professional Education (IPE) programme, I have compiled this portfolio consisting of a reflective account on my performance in throughout the programme. Included in this file are a number of secondary resources utilised in constructing the account as well as in aid of assembling the team presentation. My IPE group consisted of 4 medical, 2 pharmacy and 3 nursing students. As a multidisciplinary team, we collectively produced a presentation regarding clinical communication and ethical considerations in patient centred healthcare. Our theme was based around the growing issue of underage pregnancies throughout the capital. The wider issues of this topic ranging from the ethical, psychological, and moral implications as well as the great variety of healthcare professionals involved in managing such incidences. We chose this topic as it was something the whole group had differing views on and wanted to explore further. A copy of the article, Policy disaster as teen pregnancy rate rises to its highest in 10 years, is included for the benefit of the reader. This article from the Times Online was the key inspiration behind our choice of topic as it outlines the huge extent of the problems posed by teenage pregnancies. According to the article Britain has the highest incidence of teenage pregnancies in Western Europe. Despite the highly sensationalist tone and the incomprehensive survey of the contributing factors of teenage pregnancy, the article does offer a fascinating introspection into the ethical issues regarding pregnancy among girls below 16, the age of consent. The slideshow utilized during the team presentation, Yvonne at the clinic, is included for the benefit of the reader. As one can see it contains the key concepts the team touched upon during the presentation which was interspersed with a model role-play featuring a consultation at a sexual health clinic. Moreover, the script for the role-play has also been enclosed to help the reader appreciate the teams corroboration in conveying current issues integrated in a model scenario. Please find enclosed further evidence highlighting our effective teamwork comprising of emails, peer review forms and a diary of progress which had been logged between the IPE sessions. The essential features of a team and how it develops have been explained by Tuckmans summary of team development (1965). The model was used as a reference point for the groups progress, evaluate the teams development and to contemplate the next stage of action. The reflective account further vindicates how Tuckmans summary is clearly not exhaustive in describing the great spectrum of team behaviours. Instead, the IPE programme has enlightened the view that group dynamics are variable and so mechanical. Therefore the unpredictability arising amongst different teams, especially multi and possibly more vast amongst inter-disciplinary teams reinforces the belief that there are many contributors which affect group work. To conclude, I hope the reader finds the following account and secondary sources beneficial. In the time that has been allocated, I have tried my utmost to submit an honest account of my contribution to the IPE programme. Sincerely, Reflective Account In this reflective account, I will evaluate and analyse my performance as a team member throughout the IPE programme using the Kolb (1984) cycle1. David Kolb argues that experience is the source of learning and development. The cycle constitutes the following four stages; Concrete Experience, Reflective Observation, Abstract Conceptualisation and Active experimentation. Kolbs cycle suggests it is necessary to reflect on an experience, evaluate it and formulate concepts, which can then be applied to new situations such as working in a multidisciplinary team (MDT) 2. CAIPE uses the phrase interprofessional education (IPE) as a generic term which occurs when two or more professions learn with, from and about each other to improve collaboration and the quality of care CAIPE (2007)3. Our team consisted of nine people (four medical, three nursing and 2 pharmacy students). The application of an inquiry based learning (IBL) technique, would allow us to enhance our problem solving and communication skills. Over a period of five weeks, the team managed to present an ethical case study conveying the importance of communicative efficacy and ethical considerations within MDTs in providing patient centred care. In this paper I incorporate theoretical principles to the teams performance4-7 in a bid to divulge a deeper understanding of how and why I improve specific areas of my performance as a team member. Concrete Experience In the first IPE session, our objective was to decide the focus of our inquiry. Right from the onset, to my disbelief, the group was extremely focused and driven to the task at hand. Initially I was hesitant mainly due to the exposure of so many strangers with varying personalities but equally eager to think aloud4. This threatening situation meant that any early communication was difficult and for a considerable amount of time I found myself very quiet8. The reason for this was that my views towards this task were initially sceptical because of previous prejudices held against other disciplines. However, as the meeting progressed, I learnt that such presumptions had no basis and had arisen due to a lack of contact between the disciplines. A consensus was reached within the group to carry out our task along the lines of teenage pregnancy among girls below 16 and the wider implications it acquires. The session also included a simulated patient interview, which proved very informative and clearly highlighted the fundamental concepts of a consultation; rapport, empathy, body language, active listening and question styles. By the second session the group had conducted some research on loosely related material regarding the growing problem of teen pregnancies in the UK. In this student led session, we made a decision to commence the planning of the actual task. This was a very time consuming step to achieve as fellow members failed to comprehend the purpose of the goals we had set, since our task had a large scope and appeared vague. I felt it was my duty to urge the group to clear any misconceptions at this early stage and to channel our broad research into three specific concepts which are imperative to portray to our aud ience. I put particular emphasis on the current NHS guidelines, ethical issues and relevant multidisciplinary team approaches concerning the scenario5. Our concrete material which would provide the foundational premise for the duration of the course was provided by an article claiming Policy disaster as teen pregnancy rate rises to its highest in 10 years9. This article presents great scope for discussion including the ethical issues and the role of MDTs in managing such a growing problem. According to Bruce Tuckman (1965) there are a number of key issues relating to effective team discussion and behaviour10. Stage 1 is the forming phase and it depicts a teams natural instinct for guidance. Therefore, the premise for advancement for a particular group resides in the election of a leader. When discussing and deciding the topic for our presentation it became clear that certain individuals were more confident than others and my substantial contributions during the second session5, led me to assume leadership. Although my position involved delegating specific tasks to individuals, the group as a whole was very diplomatic and hence there was no need for an autocratic leader. As a result of this, the storming phase, which Tuckman described as the episode where decisions are most challenging, was a much rapid and unproblematic phase. This was because we all had a genuine interest in the topic and felt we each could contribute to the issue. The allocation of roles was carried out based on prior research. For instance, the individual whom had researched the healthcare team had the task of producing their own slide for the PowerPoint presentation. In addition the norming process of Tuckmans model was also coming into the fore as our keen actors6 were making great progress in their role-play of a consultation at a sexual health clinic. My contribution to the presentation consisted of a brief explanation of the importance of consent and whether a minor can consent to their own treatment (i.e. Gillick case, Fraser guidelines) 11, 12. Overall, continual discussion and communication between members mainly via emails enabled the presentation to evolve into the polished product which portrayed the efficient performing (final) phase of Tuckmans model. The team worked in an efficient manner after a sluggish start. The initial reservations were quickly diminished which helped us to progress towards our goals. During the days leading to the final presentation, I and a colleague realised some discrepancies in the script and the issue of a dress code for the team presentation was brought up6. Such concerns were clarified by email communication13, but unfortunately such enthusiasm was only shared amongst a few peers. Nevertheless, it was very satisfying to see that everyone had contributed something to the final presentation which was a sentiment to my effective delegation of roles14. I felt that a certain member had not contributed much throughout the course and was continually seeking a minimalist approach which could have been detrimental to the teams performance. I voiced my opinions in her peer review form so she could improve in the future as the potential adverse consequences of a breakdown of communication within the MDT can be damaging to the patients care. The roles conducted by the team members varied from communication, ethical issues and the role-play. Margerison and McCann (1995)15 constructed a teamwork model stating a successful team encompasses individuals with a variety of skills, hence fulfilling diverse roles. All the team members were, to differing extents, creators innovators as we each contributed something constructive. I believe certain members whom had thought of the idea of a role-play were more creative and others whom had continually produced their contributions on time were deemed concluders. Another individual whom had taken the responsibility of merging the slideshow together expressed her practical skills as an assessor, whilst another member helped to support me in my leadership role. Her efforts were invaluable in making by duties more proficient and constantly reminding me to book the library rooms for scheduled meetings. She was classified, according to the teamwork model, as an upholder. Finally, the indiv iduals involved in the role-play were concluders due to their quality standards and reporters because they were capable of incorporating prior knowledge to help answer questions following the presentation. I feel that I was a thruster because as a democratic leader it was my duty to organise and motivate other members, whilst continually involving them in the decision making process. Reflective Observation After the presentations, we took part in a peer review exercise, where our observations of each others performance throughout the course had to be reflected. The irony of teamwork is that a team is made up of individuals. These individuals will have different experiences, knowledge, expectations and priorities. Thus it is important that our team developed a keen interest in the performance as a whole, as this will influence individual contributions. Amongst the majority of peer review forms, I noticed many positive comments ranging from being knowledgeable on the subject of consent8, good at arranging ideas and has good delegation skills ensures everybody has an equal role to play14. This was extremely pleasing to learn because it illustrates that my fellow team members fully appreciated the effort that I put into the project. Also, my contribution to the presentation as a team player was also acknowledged stating I had contributed the knowledge and understanding of capacity and cons ent which helped to explain the patients rights in our role-play helped the nurses learn about the Gillick test, which until then we had no understanding of16. I believe this statement portrays my effective communication amongst the team throughout the programme enabling the group to maximise our potential to work in an MDT approach. Amongst the very few negative comments, a team member justifiably observed that I was a bit quiet at the start of the IPE session8. In retrospect, I believe I should have been more expressive and honest with my group and have confidence in making alternative suggestions ultimately benefiting the group. Furthermore, another team member felt I could have taken more control/been more decisive so that people were clear of what to do17. It was interesting to note that he/she had also written that I was good at sorting out the details i.e. what exactly each person was going to go away and research17. Nonetheless, I felt that I delegated the tasks suitably because I had ensured that each member understood and had ownership of their tasks for the next session. Although the issue had never been brought up nor had I been emailed of any confusion in the allocation of roles, I believe that I should have utilized the luxury of emailing each member clearly what they had to do. Abstract conceptualisation From this experience, I have gained a lot of knowledge both on the issues regarding underage pregnancies as well as the skills required to work effectively in a team. My fellow members had enlightened me of the growing problem of teen pregnancies in certain boroughs around the capital and we all felt the government was failing this young generation. According to the article mentioned earlier, The expansion of confidential contraceptive services for young people under 169 was the main causal factor. I learnt through an inquiry based learning approach the importance of effective clinical communication and ethical considerations in managing the issue. Furthermore, a fellow member also enlightened the group on the vital role of the sexual health centres in providing education and advice for the younger generation. I have also discovered the challenges associated with controlling large teams of varying disciplines. Apart from the logistical constraints, each member of the team had their own schedule and hence the proposition of extra sessions was difficult to attain. However, many challenges and complications were dealt with very effectively via email13, thus eliminating the scheduling and logistical constraints in place. Coordinating nine members of a team demanded good organisational and most importantly time management skills. This is enormously beneficial for me because as I progress through my medical career, there is an increasing demand for efficient teamwork. Active experimentation On reflection it is clear that our team worked very well together and expressed ourselves to construct an effective presentation of the chosen scenario. The Egalitarian atmosphere during the meetings was admirable, where every decision involved a vote of confidence. Nevertheless I feel as group leader I should have struck a balance between collective decision making and being more abrupt, as well as ensuring that all the tasks are being conducted well. Also in the future, fewer people could have presented the final task. A solution could have been to make a video for the role play, thereby freeing up more space for other members of the team on the stage. Overall, the IPE programme has been an incredible learning curve which has provided an insightful experience as well as an understanding of the significance of effective communication between professionals. Lastly, this experience has emphasized my weaknesses, but I have appreciated that others may have different ways of working; different skills and knowledge, which in practice contribute to the patients healthcare.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
According to E.D. Hirsch, to be culturally literate is to possess the basic information to thrive in the modern world. It is the "grasp on the background information that writers and speakers assume their audience already has." In his book, Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know, Hirsch sets forth 5,000 essential words and phrases of which each person should be knowledgeable. The list ranges from idioms to mythology, from science to fairy tales. Why has this list prompted a notable debate on our country's educational standards? E.D. Hirsch believes that the literacy of American people has been rapidly declining. The long range remedy for restoring and improving American literacy must be to "institute a policy of imparting common information in our schools." In short, according to Hirsch - the answer to our problem lies within the list. Hirsch's book explains the importance of the need of a higher level of national literacy. His main argument is that cultural literacy is required for effective communication and the "cooperation of many people..." Communication is what Hirsch sees is essential for success in today's society. Communication is the key to equality in America. With increased cultural literacy, an egalitarian society is eventually possible. One common body of knowledge for everyone will be the glue that holds society together. Hirsch also points out the senselessness of concepts such as multi-culturalism and multi-lingualism. He acknowledges the importance of the numerous cultures and ethnicities of which United States is comprised. Hirsch mentions the "hyphenated American: the Italo-American, the Polish-American, the Afro- American, the Asian-American and so forth." He points out that he is in favor of each minority's protection, nurture, and respect; however, he strongly feels that people need to decide what "Ã âAmerican' means on the other side of the hyphen...what national values and traditions really belong to national cultural literacy." American cultural literacy should be based on our traditions -- morality of tolerance and benevolence, the Golden Rule, communal cooperation, altruism and freedom. It is in this way that Hirsch argues those in opposition of cultural literacy. Many opponents question Hirsch's view by questioning who would decide this common body of knowledge for everyone. People debate what is includedin "the list" on the basis of multiculturism. They ask, is the knowledge equally important to every citizen of the United States no matter what race, gender or religion? Hirsch responds by putting the emphasis on the other side of the hyphen - the American side. When reading Hirsch's book, I strongly agreed with his big picture of cultural literacy and agree that it is important to establish a common body of knowledge
Monday, August 19, 2019
In the modern short story, Eudora Welty clearly develops Phoenix Jackson as a main character who indirectly manipulates other people. Phoenix, as the speaker in Ã¢â¬Å"A Worn PathÃ¢â¬ holds the status of an old Negro woman who continues the everyday cycle of life. Although, in reality Phoenix is an average human being, who feels she must be rewarded for living. Phoenix believes that humanity owes her something for the troubles she encounters throughout her lifetime. When Phoenix says to the hunter, Ã¢â¬Å"thatÃ¢â¬â¢s as far as I walk when I come out myself, and I get something for my troubleÃ¢â¬ (paragraph 46). Incidentally, Phoenix replies to the old hunterÃ¢â¬â¢s question it is quite clear that she undoubtedly is expecting compensation; whether it is a pity party or a monetary gift to settle the score. Because Phoenix feels like she must abuse other people, she appears to have the power to be in control of any situation that might come her way. Throughout WeltyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A Worn Path,Ã¢â¬ Phoenix Jackson and her actions symbolize her to be a selfish and manipulative woman. PhoenixÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession with power, is the basis of her idea to manipulate other people; which is clearly explained through her dialogue with the persons she comes in contact with on her journey into town. Along with PhoenixÃ¢â¬â¢s obsession with being pitied upon by the hunter, she also feels like she never plans to succumb to defeat. When Phoenix replies to the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s question concerning why she was laying in the bushes; she said, Ã¢â¬Å" Lying on my ...
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Discuss the intellectual history of Anglo American economic geography since the 2nd world war. Economic concepts have often been used as the foundation for geographic theory; showing a relationship between the two. When the field of economics evolves then so too does the field of economic geography. Economic geography is defined as: a field of geography that helps to describe and explain the areas where economic activities are carried out. It is centered around helping to explain the production and distribution of commodities and how resources are to be allocated and the consequences (Barnes 2009). The Second World War ceased in 1945 and after this the economies of both America and the UK changed rapidly. These economies passed through different systems; Keynesian, Marxian, Neoliberalism, and mixed an economy (Bonney 1995). This in turn meant that economic geography passed through different stages too, with the most significant change occurring directly after the war; the start of the quantitative revolution. The way that the field of economic geography changes has implication s on how the field as a whole is viewed. One of the main points is the interconnectivity with the economy; this also shows how the economy is viewed. Each period has a moment of emergence rapid efflorescence and a period of decline. To understand how economic geography has changed over the last fifty years, a brief explanation of the state of the economy should be covered Directly after the war the US economy was in a state of strong economic growth due to consumers demand increasing, this was due to there being few opportunities to consume at a desired level during the war. The US held 95% of the worlds manufacturing helping it to recover more quick... ...mic Geography. In: Leyson, A., Lee, R., Mcdowell, L. and Sunley, P. eds. 2011. The SAGE Handbook of Economic Geography. London: SAGE Publications. Bonney, R. (1995). Economic systems and state finance. Oxford [England]: Clarendon Press. Hardon, J. A. (2003). The Influence of Marxism in the United States Today. [online] Available at: http://www.therealpresence.org/archives/Communism/Communism_002.htm [Accessed: 21 Feb 2014]. Scott, A. J. (2000). Economic geography: the great half-century. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 24 (4), pp. 483 - 504. Trainer, T. (2010). MARXIST THEORY; A brief Introduction. [online] Available at: https://socialsciences.arts.unsw.edu.au/tsw/Marx.html [Accessed: 21 Feb 2014]. WiseGEEK. (2010). What Is Keynesian Economics?. [online] Available at: http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-keynesian-economics.htm [Accessed: 21 Feb 2014].
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Compare and contrast between racism in Malaysia and South Africa. Ã¢â¬Å"Racism is manÃ¢â¬â¢s gravest threat to man Ã¢â¬â the maximum of hatred for a minimum of reasonÃ¢â¬ , quoted by Abraham J. Heschel. As we know the history of racism is long and despicable one. The journey to overcome this obstacle that has plagued us for years is just as time consuming and the effort is overwhelming. A recent survey has showed that South Africa is the highest rate of racism among all the country. So now let us analyze the racism between Malaysia and South Africa. The most notable difference between the racism in Malaysia and South Africa is the oppression on women. Till today, men in Africa still hold the traditional perspective that women are like their property and subject to their abuse. The poverty Africa could be one of the main causes why women in Africa are still undergoing such a great deal of oppression unlike women in other areas. They were paid less for a greater amount of work and less benefits too. Sometime, they were dismissed without advance notice or termination pay. Besides, South Africa has the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s highest level of reported rape Ã¢â¬â nearly half a million each year. So it is not surprising that South Africa is often called the Ã¢â¬Å"rape capital of the worldÃ¢â¬ . It has shown that women in Africa typically hold lower status and normally weaker than men from physical and mentally. Therefore they are easily to be oppressed and exploited by African men. In Malaysia, the position of women today has greatly improved. The GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to promote gender equality is evidenced by several policies, administrative decision and amendments to laws that have attempted to grant equal rights to women and to remove discrimination against them. It should perhaps be acknowledged that most of the changes made were in response to lobbying by women through unions, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other womenÃ¢â¬â¢s groups. For example, in relation to employment rights, women teachers succeeded in getting the Government to adopt the principle of equal pay for equal work in 1967. Yet another difference between the racism in two different countries is discrimination of different race. In South Africa, there is a prohibiting marriage between white people and people of other races. It considers as Ã¢â¬Å"unlawful racial intercourseÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"any immoral or indecent actÃ¢â¬ between a white person and an African, Indian or coloured person. Blacks were not allowed to run businesses in those areas designated as Ã¢â¬Å"white South AfricaÃ¢â¬ without a permit. They were supposed to move to their homelands and set up businesses and practices there. Transport and civil facilities were segregated. Black buses stopped at black bus stops and white buses at white ones. Trains, hospitals and ambulances were segregated. Even though black people were not allowed to employ white people in white South Africa. Since Datuk Seri Najib Tun Abdul Razak became the sixth Prime Minister, he introduced a concept of solidarity, which is One Malaysia. 1 Malaysia brought the aspirations to improve race relations to ensure that the people of Malaysia to forge closer unity. The basic thing that needs to be created in the spirit of solidarity is a feeling of respect, sincerity and mutual trust between the races. Therefore, our citizens give priority to the interests of national allegiance and loyalty to the people and solve their own group. For example, one Indian got hit by a reckless car while he was playing outside the house. Some of neighbors (few Chinese but mostly Malays) quickly rushed for help, and they really got angry with the driver and almost smacked him! Although the neighbors are Malays, they stood for an Indian neighbor. Furthermore, the difference of racism between Malaysia and South Africa is the education system. South Africa has a high-cost, low-performance education system that does not compare favorably with education systems in other African countries, or in similar developing economies. There is a multitude of well-publicized problems, including a shortage of teachers, under qualified teachers and poor teacher performance. In the classroom, this results in poor learner standards and results, a lack of classroom discipline and is exacerbated by insufficient resources and inadequate infrastructure. So it is not surprising that many South Africans are low-educated and paid for little salaries. MalaysiaÃ¢â¬â¢s educational system generally promotes surface and passive learning instead of deep and active learning which are crucial for creating a quality learning environment. The products of our school system are generally ill-prepared either for higher education work or life in general. As we know, our students lack critical and creative thinking skills because our educational system promotes conformity and uniformity. Therefore, a lot of step in transforming our education system are done. For example, one of the crucial steps is begin with the end in our mind. So, Malaysian students and graduates can possess adequate disciplinary knowledge, be self-confident and achievement-oriented persuasive and effective communicators. In conclusion, here are the main three differences between the racism in Africa and Malaysia. Even though racism is wrong, it is still being practiced in this country and in others. The origins are obscure, but it most likely had something to do with the fact that early humankind thought Ã¢â¬Å"blackÃ¢â¬ (because it resembled Ã¢â¬Å"nightÃ¢â¬ ) was bad and Ã¢â¬Å"whiteÃ¢â¬ (because it resembled Ã¢â¬Å"dayÃ¢â¬ ) was good. But our enlightened society has more discernment than this, and we know that a person is neither good nor bad depending on the color of their skin.